Function  Description  Example  

Absolute value 
Changes all negative numbers to positive numbers. Positive numbers and zero are unchanged. 


Divide 
Calculates the division rounded down to the nearest integer. 


Exponential 
Calculates e raised to a power, where e is the constant 2.718281. 


Factorial 
Calculates the factorial of a value. 


Inverse 
Calculates the inverse (reciprocal) of a value. 


Log base 10 
Calculates logarithms to the base 10. Log base 10 is defined only for positive numbers. When you multiply a number by 10, you increase its log by 1; when you divide a number by 10, you decrease its log by 1. 


Logarithm 
Calculates logarithm to a base that you specify. 


Natural log(log base e) 
Calculates logarithms to the base e. 


Partial product 
Calculates the product of rows starting at row 1 to the current row. 
Set up a data table with two columns. Column 1 contains the data values, and column 2 contains the formula


Partial sum 
Calculates the sum of rows starting at row 1 to the current row. 
Set up a data table with two columns. Column 1 contains the data values, and Column 2 contains the formula


Power 
Calculates a number raised to a power. 


Product 
Calculates the product of a series of numbers. 
If Control1 contains 2, 3, and 4, 

Remainder 
Calculates the remainder after a value is divided by a divisor. 


Round 
Rounds a value to a specified number of decimal places. 


Square root 
Calculates the square root for a positive number. If a negative value is entered, Qeystone Tools returns *. 
Control1 is a text box that contains the value 100. 

Sum 
Calculates the sum of a list of values. 
Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

Sum of product 
Calculates the sum of the product of two arrays of numbers. 
Control1 contains 2, 1, and 2. Control2 contains 2, 2, 3. 
Function  Description  Example 

Count 
Calculates the number of observations. 
Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 2, 3, 4, 7, 1. 
Inverse of standard normal cumulative distribution 
Calculates the value associated with the area under the probability density function. The distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. 

Maximum 
Returns the largest value in a series. 
Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. 
Mean 
Calculates the average or mean. 
Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. 
Median 
Calculates the median or middle of the data. For a series with n values, if n is odd, the median is the value in the middle. If n is even, the median is the average of the two middle values. 
For example, Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Minimum 
Returns the smallest value in a series. 
Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. 
Range 
Calculates the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value in a series of values. 
If Control1 contains 10, 30, 40, and 60, 
Standard deviation 
Measures the dispersion (how spread out the data are) about the mean. 
Control1 in a data table contains the following values: 80, 80, 80, and 80. 
Standard normal cumulative distribution 
Returns the area under the probability density function. The distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. 

Function  Description  Example 

Payment 
Calculates the periodic payment for an annuity with a constant interest rate. Syntax example: PMT(rate, num_periods, present_value, future_value, type) 
The payment for a $10,000, fouryear loan at a rate of 7.25%, compounded monthly
The payment would be $240.62 per month. 
Present value 
Calculates the present value of an investment as a result of payments over a period of time Syntax example: PV(rate, num_periods, payment, future_value, type) 
Receiving payments of $100 once per year for the next five years at a 6.5% yearly interest rate
Receiving payments of $100 per year for five years would be the same as receiving $415.57 now. 
Future value 
Calculates the future value of an investment as a result of payments over a period of time Syntax example: FV(rate, num_periods, payment, present_value, type) 
Starting with $0, investing $10 per month for a year at a 5% yearly interest rate, compounded monthly.
After a year, the investment would be worth $122.79 
The rate R must be in decimal form and should specify the interest rate per period. For example, to calculate the future value of $5000 after 12 years with an annual interest rate of 6%, enter FV(.06, 12, 5000). To calculate the future value of $5000 after 12 quarters with an annual rate of 6%, enter FV(.06/4, 12, 5000).
Function  Description  Example 

And 
Checks whether all of the conditions are true. Returns TRUE if all conditions are met and FALSE otherwise. (Only used as the first term in an If statement.) 

Array if 
Returns a list of values which meet a condition. The data table with the formula must contain the same number of rows as the number of values meeting the condition. 

Count if 
Returns the number of times when a condition is met. 

If 
Checks whether a condition is met, and returns one value if true, and another value if false. 

Not 
Changes FALSE to TRUE, or TRUE to FALSE. Used to negate a logical condition. 

Or 
Checks whether any of the conditions are true. Returns TRUE if at least one condition is met and FALSE otherwise. (Used only as the first term in an If statement.) 

Enclose text strings in double quotes.
Function  Description  Example 

Concatenate 
Combines several text strings into one text string. The data type for the formula control must be text. 
Control1 contains "Total" and control2 contains "Defects". 
Find 
Returns the starting position of one text string within another text string (counting from the left). FIND is case sensitive. 
Control1 contains "B32A64S". 
Left 
Returns the specified number of characters from the start of a text string. The data type of the formula control must be text. 

Length 
Calculates the number of characters (including blank spaces) in a text string. The data type of the formula control must be numeric. 

Mid 
Returns the characters from the middle of a text string given a starting position and number of characters. The data type of the formula control must be text. 

Repeat 
Returns the character repeated a specified number of times. The repeating character for the first argument must be enclosed in quotes (unless it is a control). The formula control must be in text format. 
Control1 contains the values 2, 4, and 1 and is in integer format. 
Right 
Returns the specified number of characters from the end of a text string. The data type of the formula control must be text. 

Function  Description  Example 

Date 
Returns the date from given year, month, and day. 

Date difference 
Returns the number of elapsed days from one date to the next (the difference between the two dates). The formula control must be numeric. 

Day 
Returns the day of the month, a number from 1 to 31. 
The date picker control1 contains the date December 20, 2011. 
Month 
Returns the month, a number from 1 (January) to 12 (December). 
The date picker control1 contains the date December 20, 2011. 
Now 
Returns the present date. 
If today's date is June 28, 2011, 
Year 
Returns the year of a date. 
The date picker Control1 contains the date December 20, 2011. 
Function  Description  Example 

Array 
Returns a list of values. 
ARRAY(1, 2, 3, 4) in Control1 of a data table with 4 rows returns:
ARRAY requires at least two arguments. 
Error 
Generates an error with a tool tip message. In the formula, enclose the tool tip text in quotes. Use as part of an IF statement. 
You create a form that requires a "yes" answer to a question in order to complete the rest of the form. 
Index 
Returns an index of rows or columns in increments of 1, beginning with the first row or column. This function does not use an argument (do not insert a value between the parentheses). The formula control for this function must be in a data table. 
If a data table has 5 rows, INDEX( ) returns:

Is missing 
Checks if a value is missing or if a formula generates an error. Returns 1 (true) or 0 (false). 
Control1 contains a text box. 
Sequence 
Returns a sequence of numbers based on the starting number and the increment you specify. The formula control for this function must be in a data table. 
If a data table has 5 rows, SEQUENCE(10, 4) returns:
