Let *C*_{2k} and *C*_{1k} be defined as follows:
The carryover effect is then given by:
### SE

The standard error for the carryover effect is given by the following:
where *S*_{p} is the pooled standard deviation for the carryover effect, which is given by the following:

Term | Description |
---|---|

Sample mean using the data C_{2k}, k = 1, ..., n_{2} | |

Sample mean using the data C_{1k}, k = 1, ..., n_{1} | |

n_{2} | Number of participants in sequence 2 |

n_{1} | Number of participants in sequence 1 |

S_{2} | Sample standard deviation of C_{2k}, k = 1, ..., n_{2} |

S_{1} | Sample standard deviation of C_{1k}, k = 1, ..., n_{1} |

The treatment effect is given by:
### SE

The standard error for each effect is given by the following:
where *S*_{p} is the pooled standard deviation which is given by the following:

Term | Description |
---|---|

Sample mean for sequence i (for more information, go to Methods and formulas for common concepts used in Equivalence Test for a 2x2 Crossover Design) | |

n_{i} | Number of participants in sequence i |

S_{1} | Sample standard deviation of for sequence i |

The period effect is given by:
### SE

The standard error for each effect is given by the following:
where *S*_{p} is the pooled standard deviation, which is given by the following:

Term | Description |
---|---|

Sample mean for sequence i (for more information, go to Methods and formulas for common concepts used in Equivalence Test for a 2x2 Crossover Design) | |

n_{i} | Number of participants in sequence i |

S_{1} | Sample standard deviation of for sequence i |

Term | Description |
---|---|

SE | Standard error for the effect (for more information, see the section on each effect) |

t_{α/2} | Upper α/2 critical value for a t-distribution with n_{1} + n_{2} – 2 degrees of freedom |

α | Probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true (also called the significance level) |

n_{i} | Number of participants in sequence i |