Complete the following steps to interpret an outlier test. Key output includes the p-value, the outlier, and the outlier plot.

To determine whether an outlier exists, compare the p-value to the significance level. Usually, a significance level (denoted as α or alpha) of 0.05 works well. A significance level of 0.05 indicates a 5% risk of concluding that an outlier exists when no actual outlier exists.

- P-value ≤ α: An outlier exists (Reject H
_{0}) - If the p-value is less than or equal to the significance level, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that an outlier exists. Try to identify the cause of any outliers. Correct any data–entry errors or measurement errors. Consider removing data values that are associated with abnormal, one-time events (special causes).
- P-value > α: You cannot conclude an outlier exists (Fail to reject H
_{0}) - If the p-value is greater than the significance level, the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis because you do not have enough evidence to conclude that an outlier exists. You should make sure that your test has enough power to detect an outlier. For more information, go to Increase power.

Null hypothesis | All data values come from the same normal population |
---|---|

Alternative hypothesis | Smallest data value is an outlier |

Significance level | α = 0.05 |

Variable | N | Mean | StDev | Min | Max | G | P |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

BreakStrength | 14 | 123.4 | 46.3 | 12.4 | 193.1 | 2.40 | 0.044 |

Variable | Row | Outlier |
---|---|---|

BreakStrength | 10 | 12.38 |

In these results, the null hypothesis states that all data values come from the same normal population. Because the p-value is 0.044, which is less than the significance level of 0.05, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that an outlier exists.

If the test identifies an outlier in the data, then Minitab displays an outlier table. Use the outlier table to determine the value of the outlier, and the row in the worksheet that contains the outlier.

Null hypothesis | All data values come from the same normal population |
---|---|

Alternative hypothesis | Smallest data value is an outlier |

Significance level | α = 0.05 |

Variable | N | Mean | StDev | Min | Max | G | P |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

BreakStrength | 14 | 123.4 | 46.3 | 12.4 | 193.1 | 2.40 | 0.044 |

Variable | Row | Outlier |
---|---|---|

BreakStrength | 10 | 12.38 |

In these results, the value of the outlier is 12.38, and it is in row 10.

Use the outlier plot to visually identify an outlier in the data. If an outlier exists, Minitab represents it on the plot as a red square. Try to identify the cause of any outliers. Correct any data–entry errors or measurement errors. Consider removing data values for abnormal, one-time events (also called special causes).