# Specify methods of estimation for the standard deviation for Between/Within Capability Sixpack

Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Sixpack > Between/Within > Estimate

## Estimation methods for capability statistics

Within subgroup
Select a method for estimating within-subgroup standard deviation.
• Rbar: Rbar is the average of the subgroup ranges. This method is a common estimate of the standard deviation and works best with subgroup sizes from 2 to 8.
• Sbar: Sbar is the average of the subgroup standard deviations. This method provides a more precise estimate of the standard deviation than Rbar, especially with subgroup sizes > 8.
• Pooled standard deviation: The pooled standard deviation is the weighted average of subgroup variances, which gives larger subgroups more influence on the overall estimate. This method provides the most precise estimate of standard deviation when the process is in control.
Between subgroups
Select a method for estimating between-subgroup standard deviation.
• Average moving range: The average moving range is the average value of the moving range of two or more consecutive points. This method is commonly used when the subgroup size is 1.
• Median moving range: The median moving range is the median value of the moving range of two or more consecutive points. This method is best to use when data have extreme ranges that could influence the moving range.
• Square root of MSSD: The square root of MSSD is the square root of the mean of the squared differences between consecutive points. Use this method when you cannot reasonably assume that at least 2 consecutive points were collected under similar conditions.

## Estimation methods for control charts

Within subgroup: Subgroup size ≤ 8
Select a method for estimating the within-subgroup standard deviation when the subgroup size is less than or equal to 8.
• Rbar: Rbar is the average of the subgroup ranges. This method is a common estimate of the standard deviation and works best with subgroup sizes from 2 to 8.
• Sbar: Sbar is the average of the subgroup standard deviations. This method provides a more precise estimate of the standard deviation than Rbar, especially with subgroup sizes > 8.
• Pooled standard deviation: The pooled standard deviation is the weighted average of subgroup variances, which gives larger subgroups more influence on the overall estimate. This method provides the most precise estimate of standard deviation when the process is in control.
Within subgroup: Subgroup size > 8
Select a method for estimating the within-subgroup standard deviation when the subgroup size is greater than 8.
• Sbar: Sbar is the average of the subgroup standard deviations. This method provides a more precise estimate of the standard deviation than Rbar, especially with subgroup sizes > 8.
• Pooled standard deviation: The pooled standard deviation is the weighted average of subgroup variances, which gives larger subgroups more influence on the overall estimate. This method provides the most precise estimate of standard deviation when the process is in control.
Between subgroups
Select a method for estimating the between-subgroup standard deviation.
• Average moving range: The average moving range is the average value of the moving range of two or more consecutive points. This method is commonly used when the subgroup size is 1.
• Median moving range: The median moving range is the median value of the moving range of two or more consecutive points. This method is best to use when data have extreme ranges that could influence the moving range.

## Use unbiasing constants

Unbiasing constants reduce the bias that can occur when a parameter is estimated from a small number of observations. As the number of observations increases, unbiasing constants have less effect on the calculated results. Often, the choice to use unbiasing constants depends on company policy or industry standards.

• Within subgroup: Use unbiasing constants in the estimate of the within-subgroup standard deviation. This option applies to the Sbar, pooled standard deviation, and square root of MSSD methods.
• Overall (capability statistics only): Use unbiasing constants in the estimate of the overall standard deviation for the capability statistics.

## Use moving range of length

Enter the number of observations used to calculate the moving range. The length must be ≤ 100. The default length is 2 because consecutive values have the greatest chance of being alike.