DPU, DPO, and DPMO are metrics that express how your product or process is performing, based on the number of defects. Choosing the appropriate quality metric helps you assess performance against customer expectations. You can also develop project baselines and improvement goals, as well as communicate the level of conformance to your customers.

Defects per unit (DPU) is the number of defects in a sample divided by the number of units sampled.

Your printing business prints custom stationary orders. Each order is considered a unit. Fifty orders are randomly selected and inspected and the following defects are found.

- Two orders are incomplete
- One order is both damaged and incorrect (2 defects)
- Three orders have typos

Defects per opportunity (DPO) is the number of defects in a sample divided by the total number of defect opportunities.

Each custom stationary order could have four defects - incorrect, typo, damaged, or incomplete. Therefore, each order has four opportunities. Fifty orders are randomly selected and inspected and the following defects are found.

- Two orders are incomplete
- One order is both damaged and incorrect (2 defects)
- Three orders have typos

Defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is the number of defects in a sample divided by the total number of defect opportunities multiplied by 1 million. DPMO standardizes the number of defects at the opportunity level and is useful because you can compare processes with different complexities.

Each custom stationary order could have four defects - incorrect, typo, damaged, or incomplete. Therefore, each order has four opportunities. Fifty orders are randomly selected and inspected and the following defects are found.

- Two orders are incomplete
- One order is both damaged and incorrect (2 defects)
- Three orders have typos