A materials engineer at a furniture manufacturing site wants to assess the stiffness of the particle board that the manufacturer uses. The engineer measures the stiffness and the density of a sample of particle board pieces.
The engineer uses simple regression to determine whether the density of the particles is associated with the stiffness of the board.
The p-value for the regression model is 0.000, which means that the actual p-value is less than 0.0005. Because the p-value is less than the significance level of 0.05, the engineer can conclude that the association between stiffness and density is statistically significant. However, there appears to be an outlier in the top right corner of the fitted line plot. Because the outlier could have a strong effect on the results, the engineer should investigate this point to determine its cause.