Use a cross-functional process map to illustrate the sequential
steps of a process or a procedure as they cross departments and phases.
Watch this video to learn more:
Process maps help you to understand and to communicate the activities, or
steps, in a process. They also help you to see the relationships between inputs
and outputs in a process and to identify key decision points. Cross-functional
process maps help you to see the department and the phase in which an activity
Departments (also called swim lanes) divide the steps horizontally. After
you add a department, you can add a phase. Phases divide the steps vertically.
Answers the questions:
What areas of the process show
the greatest opportunity for improvement? Which departments and phases do they
What obstacles in the workflow
occur when work moves between departments?
Can you plan departmental
activities more efficiently? For example, can you consolidate them into fewer
phases of the workflow?
For a specific project, where
does the process start and where does it end?
What does the actual process,
not the assumed process, look like at the start of the project?
What are the inputs and
outputs of each step in the process?
For a specific project, which
inputs have little impact on the output of interest?
Which steps are the
bottlenecks and sources of defects?
Which steps have a direct
impact on customer requirements?
Can you simplify, combine, or
eliminate steps in the process?
What does the actual process
look like at the end of the project?
When to Use
Identify potential projects and isolate areas of the process that
need improvement .
Start of project
Scope the project. Define the start and the end of process segment
that is the focus of the project.
Identify steps in the actual process, along with their inputs,
outputs, activities, and constraints.
As a team exercise, set aside inputs that have little influence on
the output of interest.
As a team exercise, simplify and eliminate process steps.
End of project
Document changes in procedures for the improved process.
This tool has no data requirements because you use it only to collect and
organize process steps.
Create a process map with a
team of people who have various jobs related to the process. A cross-functional
team can help you to identify activities, inputs, outputs, or process data that
you might fail to see from a single perspective.
Always "walk the process" to
ensure the process map is accurate.
When you use a process map
to identify potential inputs, focus on one step at a time.
As a team, determine where
the process starts and where it ends, and then walk through each step of the
Identify the department and
the phase where the step belongs.
Identify the data associated
with each step of the process, including:
Activities: Names of the
steps in the process map.
Inputs: X variables that
might influence the output of interest, either directly or indirectly.
Outputs: Y variables
that depend on X variables.
Information that further defines the characteristics of a process, such as the
yield or DPMO at each step.
Lean data: Information
that is typically used to identify and eliminate waste, such as resource
utilization or cycle time at each step.
Record the collected
information in a process map.
Create a process map
with a team of people who have various jobs related to the process. A
cross-functional team can help you to identify activities, inputs, outputs, or
process data that you might fail to see from a single perspective.
Always "walk the
process" to ensure the process map is accurate.
When you use a process
map to identify potential inputs, focus on a single step.