The Kano Model
answers the following questions.
- How can we better understand our
customers' wants and needs?
- What features do customers expect?
- What features do customers find frustrating?
- What features do customers find delightful?
- What features should we invest in to increase customer satisfaction?
- Gather “Voice of Customer" (VOC) feedback to uncover customer perceptions
about the product features. Ask two questions for each feature.
- "What if this feature is fully functional?" to determine how
customers feel if the feature is implemented well.
- "What if this requirement is dysfunctional?" to determine how
customers feel if the feature is not implemented well or if the
feature is not implemented at all.
- In the Kano Evaluation Table, enter customer features.
- For each feature, select the option that best describes how customers feel
if the feature is met or not met and the importance of the feature. The
combination of your selections is assigned to one of the following
categories and displayed in the Kano Category column.
To see how the categories are assigned, open the Kano Matrix.
- Must-Be: Without these mandatory "must-have" features, the product is
perceived as incomplete, which decreases customer satisfaction.
- Performance: Features that perform better than expected increase customer
satisfaction proportionally. The better the product performs, the
more satisfied the customer is.
- Attractive: Described as "delighters", "innovators", or "nice-to-haves",
these unexpected features create a positive reaction and increase
- Indifferent: These features are neither good nor bad and result in neither
satisfaction nor dissatisfaction.
- Reverse: These features might be overly simple or overly complex, which
may cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction for some customers.
- Questionable: Features in this category indicate that customers might have
misunderstood or misinterpreted the question. When this happens,
clarify the question.
- In the Implementation Level column, enter a number between -100 (not implemented) and 100 (fully
implemented) to describe the degree to which the feature is implemented in
the final product and how much is invested in its development.
- In the Satisfaction Level, enter a number between -100 (dissatisfaction and frustration) and 100
(excitement and delight) to describe the degree to which customers are
satisfied with the functionality the feature provides in the final product.
- Review the graph to determine how
to prioritize the features and increase customer satisfaction.
- Basic Needs - Must Be: Features in this area lead to increased satisfaction with little
investment. After "basic needs" are met, you can stop investing in
- Attractive - Delighters: Features in this area lead to increased satisfaction, even if
the feature has limited functionality.
- Performance: Features in this area lead to increased satisfaction with every
increase in functionality. However, increased functionality requires
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