If your general linear model includes nested factors or random factors, or if it uses binary coding, the following are restrictions on the procedures that you can perform.

- If your model contains random factors, you must specify a hierarchical model in the Model dialog.
- Stepwise procedures are not available for models that contain random factors.
Comparisons are not available for terms that contain or interact with random factors. Nesting is a form of interaction. Suppose the model contains A B C A*B, where both A and C are random, and B is fixed. Because A*B is a term in the model, no multiple comparison results for B are available even though B is a fixed factor. However, if the model does not include A*B, multiple comparison results are available for B.

There is a special case for a balanced design that has two factors. Suppose the model contains A B A*B, where A is random, and B is fixed. Even though A*B is in the model, you can perform multiple comparisons for B.

- Comparisons is disabled if you choose (1, 0) coding and the model is non-hierarchical. To enable Comparisons for this case, choose (-1, 0, +1) coding or specify a hierarchical model.
- Factorial Plots cannot display nested factors.
- Predict cannot calculate confidence intervals when the model contains random factors.
- Predict is not available for models that contain nested factors.
- Response Optimizer is not available for models that contain nested factors.