Overview for Cross Tabulation and Chi-Square

Use Cross Tabulation and Chi-Square when you have data that are categorized by one or more categorical variables. With a cross tabulation and chi-square analysis, you can do the following:
  • Determine the counts or percentages for combinations of categories across two or more categorical variables.
  • Investigate the relationship between variables.

A cross tabulation displays the joint frequency of data values based on two or more categorical variables. The joint frequency data can be analyzed with the chi-square statistic to evaluate whether the variables are associated or independent. Cross tabulation analysis is used for two-way tables and is also known as contingency table analysis.

For example, an engineer wants to determine how many defective parts were created on different production lines, during each shift. This table shows frequency counts for each production line and shift. Percentages and other table statistics are available to use when analyzing the data.
Production Line Morning Evening Total
A 4 25 29
B 5 18 23
C 3 23 26
All 12 66 78

Where to find this analysis

To perform a cross tabulation and chi-square analysis, choose Stat > Tables > Cross Tabulation and Chi-Square.

When to use an alternate analysis

If you want to determine whether the proportions of categories from sample data are consistent with a hypothesized distribution, use Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test.

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