Use the power curve to assess the appropriate sample size or power for your test.
The power curve represents every combination of power and difference for each sample size when the significance level and the standard deviation are held constant. Each symbol on the power curve represents a calculated value based on the values that you enter. For example, if you enter a sample size and a power value, Minitab calculates the corresponding difference and displays the calculated value on the graph.
Examine the values on the curve to determine the difference between the paired means that can be detected at a certain power value and sample size. A power value of 0.9 is usually considered adequate. However, some practitioners consider a power value of 0.8 to be adequate. If a hypothesis test has low power, you might fail to detect a difference that is practically significant. If you increase the sample size, the power of the test also increases. You want enough observations in your sample to achieve adequate power. But you don't want a sample size so large that you waste time and money on unnecessary sampling or detect unimportant differences to be statistically significant. If you decrease the size of the difference that you want to detect, the power also decreases.
In this graph, the power curve for a sample size of 10 shows that the test has a power of approximately 0.4 for a difference of 3. The power curve for a sample size of 20 shows that the test has a power of approximately 0.72 for a difference of 3. The power curve for a sample size of 50 shows that the test has a power of approximately 0.99 for a difference of 3. As the difference approaches 0, the power of the test decreases and approaches α (also called the significance level), which is 0.05 for this analysis.