An equivalence plot displays the equivalence limits, the confidence interval for equivalence, and the decision about whether you can claim equivalence.
Use the equivalence plot to view a graphical summary of the equivalence test results and to determine whether you can claim equivalence.
Compare the confidence interval with the equivalence limits. If the confidence interval is completely within the equivalence limits, you can claim that the population mean is equivalent to the target. If part of the confidence interval is outside the equivalence limits, you cannot claim equivalence.
A histogram divides sample values into many intervals and represents the frequency of data values in each interval with a bar.
Use histograms to assess the shape and spread of the data. Histograms are best when the sample size is greater than 20.
Determine whether your data appear to be skewed.When data are skewed, the majority of the data is toward the high or low side of the graph. Often, skewness is easiest to identify with a boxplot or histogram.
Data that are severely skewed can affect the validity of the test results if your sample is small (< 20 values). If your data are severely skewed and you have a small sample, consider increasing your sample size.
Outliers, which are data points that are far away from most of the other data, can strongly affect your results. Outliers are easiest to identify on a boxplot.
You should try to identify the cause of any outliers. Correct any data entry or measurement errors. Consider removing data that are associated with special causes and repeating the analysis. For more information on special causes, go to Using control charts to detect common-cause variation and special-cause variation.
An individual value plot displays the individual values for the sample in a horizontal column. Each circle represents one observation. An individual value plot is useful when you have relatively few observations and you want to assess the effect of each observation.
Determine whether your data appear to be skewed.When data are skewed, the majority of the data is toward the high or low side of the graph. Often, skewness is easiest to identify with a boxplot or histogram.
Data that are severely skewed can affect the validity of the test results if your sample is small (< 20 values). If your data are severely skewed and you have a small sample, consider increasing your sample size.
Outliers, which are data points that are far away from most of the other data, can strongly affect your results. Outliers are easiest to identify on a boxplot.
You should try to identify the cause of any outliers. Correct any data entry or measurement errors. Consider removing data that are associated with special causes and repeating the analysis. For more information on special causes, go to Using control charts to detect common-cause variation and special-cause variation.
The boxplot provides a graphical summary of the distribution of a sample. The boxplot shows the shape, central tendency, and variability of the data.
Use a boxplot to examine the spread of the data and identify any potential outliers. Boxplots are best when the sample size is greater than 20.
Determine whether your data appear to be skewed.When data are skewed, the majority of the data is toward the high or low side of the graph. Often, skewness is easiest to identify with a boxplot or histogram.
Data that are severely skewed can affect the validity of the test results if your sample is small (< 20 values). If your data are severely skewed and you have a small sample, consider increasing your sample size.
Outliers, which are data points that are far away from most of the other data, can strongly affect your results. Outliers are easiest to identify on a boxplot.
You should try to identify the cause of any outliers. Correct any data entry or measurement errors. Consider removing data that are associated with special causes and repeating the analysis. For more information on special causes, go to Using control charts to detect common-cause variation and special-cause variation.