C&E Matrix (X-Y Matrix)

Use the C&E Matrix (X-Y Matrix) (cause-and-effect matrix) to determine relationships between a set of Xs (inputs) and a set of Ys (outputs).
The C&E Matrix (X-Y Matrix) answers the following questions.
  • What are the quantitative relationships between inputs (causes) and outputs (effects)?
  • Which inputs are likely to improve your process?


  1. Develop a list of the Xs (inputs) to evaluate.
  2. Develop a list of Ys (outputs) that are important to your project or activity.
  3. Enter the inputs down the left side of the matrix and the outputs across the top of the matrix.
  4. Apply a weight to each output. Usually, you use a 1-to-9 scale for weighting the contributions of the outputs. For example, hole location is critical so you set it to 9; however, surface finish is not as critical, so you set it to 4.
  5. Rate the impact of each input on each output using the following scale.
    • 0 = No impact
    • 1 = Little impact
    • 3 = Moderate impact
    • 9 = Strong impact
  6. Review the calculated results in the table and examine the Input Effect Pareto Chart. Inputs that have the highest values have the greatest impact on the output.

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