Symbol  Name  Description  Syntax  Example 

√  square root  Calculates the square root for a positive number. A negative number returns *.  sqrt(number)  sqrt(100) returns 10 
X^{2}  X squared  Multiplies the number by itself.  number^2  4^2 returns 16 
X^{3}  X cubed  Multiples the number by itself three times.  number^3  4^3 returns 64 
X^{n}  X to the nth  Multiplies the number by itself the number of times you specify.  number^n  4^6 returns 4,096 
π  pi  Multiplies the number by 3.14.  pi(number)  pi(4) returns 12.5663706144 
log  logten  Calculates logarithm to the base 10  logten(number, base)  log(7.38905) returns 2 
ln  natural log(log base e)  Calculates logarithm to the base e.  ln(number)  ln(7.38905) returns 2 
e^{x}  exponential  Calculates e raised to a power, where e is the constant 2.718281.  exp(number)  exp(2) returns 7.39 
if  Checks whether a condition is met, and returns one value if true, and another value if false.  if(logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false)  if(variable1>5, 1, 0) returns 1 if variable1 is greater than 5, and returns 0 if variable1 is less than or equal to 5  
and  Checks whether all of the conditions are true. Returns true if all conditions are met and false otherwise. It is often useful to use the "and" function as the first argument of an "if" function, for example, if(and(logical_test1, logical_test2, ...), 1, 0).  and(logical_test1, logical_test2, ...)  and(variableA>5, variableB >7) returns 1 if variableA is greater than 5 and variableB is greater than 7; returns 0 if either variableA is less than or equal to 5, or if variableB is less than or equal to 7  
or  Checks whether any of the conditions are true. Returns true if at least one condition is met and false otherwise. It is often useful to use the "or" function as the first argument of an "if" function, for example, if(or(logical_test1, logical_test2, ...), 1, 0).  or(logical_test1, logical_test2, ...)  or(variableA>5, variableB >7) returns 1 if variableA is greater than 5, or variableB is greater than 7, or both are true; returns 0 if both variableA is less than or equal to 5, and variableB is less than or equal to 7  
not  Changes false to true, or true to false. Used to negate a logical condition.  not(logical_test)  not(variableA>5) returns 1 if variableA is less than or equal to 5; returns 0 if variableA is greater than 5  
abs  absolute value  Changes all negative numbers to positive numbers. Positive numbers and zero are unchanged.  abs(number)  abs(5) returns 5 
min  minimum  Returns the smallest value in a series of numbers, variables, constants, or functions.  min(number)  min(2, 4, 6, 8, 10) returns 2 
max  maximum  Returns the largest value in a series of numbers, variables, constants, or functions.  max(number)  max(2, 4, 6, 8, 10) returns 10 
round  Rounds a value to a specified number of decimal places. Round accepts negative arguments. When a second argument is not entered, 0 is used.  round(number, num_digits) 
round(103.058, 2) returns 103.06 round(103.058, 2) returns 100 round(103.058) returns 103 

degrees  Converts angles measured in radians to degrees.  degrees(number)  deg(1.5) returns 86º  
radians  Converts angles measured in degrees to radians.  radians(number)  rad(68) returns 1.19 radians 