# What are N, minimum, maximum, range, and sum?

## N missing, N nonmissing, and N total

In Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics, you can choose to include counts of values in Session window output. You can include any of the following counts:
N missing
The number of missing values in the sample. The number of missing values refers to cells containing the missing value symbol *. Minitab displays this value in the Session Window as N*.
N nonmissing
The number of non-missing values in the sample. Minitab displays this value in the Session Window as N.
N total
The sum of N missing and N nonmissing, or the total number of observations in the column. Minitab displays this value in the Session Window as Total Count.

You can also use the Calculator to calculate these statistics and display the results in the worksheet.

## Cumulative N

A running total of the number of observations in successive categories.

For example, an elementary school records the number of students in grades one through six. The Cumulative N column contains the cumulative count of the student population:
Grade Level Count Cumulative N Calculation
1 49 49 49
2 58 107 49 + 58
3 52 159 49 + 58 + 52
4 60 219 49 + 58 + 52 + 60
5 48 267 49 + 58 + 52 + 60 + 48
6 55 322 49 + 58 + 52 + 60 + 48 + 55

## Minimum and maximum

Maximum refers to the highest value; minimum refers to the lowest. In Minitab, you can use descriptive statistics to display the highest and lowest values in a column (choose Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics). You can also use MAXIMUM or MINIMUM in the Calculator to identify an extreme value that could be an outlier or a data entry mistake.

## Range

The range is the difference between the largest and smallest data values. The range represents the smallest interval that contains all the data values. In Minitab, you can use descriptive statistics to calculate the range of numbers in a column (choose Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics) and display the result in the Session window.

You can also use RANGE in the Calculator to calculate the difference between the largest and smallest numbers in a column and store the result in the worksheet. Use RRANGE to calculate the range for each row in a set of columns.

In control charts and capability analyses, you can use the average range across all subgroups (Rbar) to estimate your process standard deviation.

## Sum

The sum is the total of all of the data values. In Minitab, you can use descriptive statistics to calculate the sum of numbers in a column (choose Stat > Basic Statistics > Display Descriptive Statistics) and display the result in the Session window.

You can also use SUM in the Calculator to add numbers in a column and display the result in the worksheet. Use RSUM to calculate the sum for each row in a set of columns.

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