You can use the Cauchy distribution to see how well hypothesis tests that assume normality behave when data are from a different distribution. You can also use the Cauchy distribution to test how well robust techniques work under a variety of distributional assumptions. The Cauchy distribution is widely used in physics.

The Cauchy distribution is a continuous distribution that is defined by its location and scale parameters.
Cauchy distribution
Normal distribution

The Cauchy distribution is represented by a bell-shaped curve, similar to a normal distribution. However, tails approach zero less quickly than do those of the normal distribution. Also, the mean and standard deviation of the Cauchy distribution are undefined, unlike the mean and standard deviation of the normal distribution.

The Cauchy distribution is also known as the Lorentz distribution.

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