# Coefficients for Simple Binary Logistic Regression

Find definitions and interpretation guidance for every statistic in the Coefficients table.

## Coef

A regression coefficient describes the size and direction of the relationship between a predictor and the response variable. Coefficients are the numbers by which the values of the term are multiplied in a regression equation.

### Interpretation

Use the coefficient to determine whether a change in a predictor variable makes the event more likely or less likely. The estimated coefficient for a predictor represents the change in the link function for each unit change in the predictor, while the other predictors in the model are held constant. The relationship between the coefficient and the probability depends on several aspects of the analysis, including the link function, the reference event for the response, and the reference levels for categorical predictors that are in the model. Generally, positive coefficients make the event more likely and negative coefficients make the event less likely. An estimated coefficient near 0 implies that the effect of the predictor is small.

Binary logistic regression in Minitab Express uses the logit link function, which provides the most natural interpretation of the estimated coefficients. The interpretation uses the fact that the odds of a reference event are P(event)/P(not event) and assumes that the other predictors remain constant. The greater the log odds, the more likely the reference event is. Therefore, positive coefficients indicate that the event becomes more likely and negative coefficients indicate that the event becomes less likely. A summary of interpretations for different types of predictors follows.

The coefficient of a continuous predictor is the estimated change in the natural log of the odds for the reference event for each unit increase in the predictor. For example, if the coefficient for time in seconds is 1.4, then the natural log of the odds increase by 1.4 for each additional second.

Estimated coefficients can also be used to calculate the odds ratios, or the ratio between two odds. To calculate the odds ratio, exponentiate the coefficient for a predictor. The result is the odds ratio for when the predictor is x+1, compared to when the predictor is x. For example, if the odds ratio for mass in kilograms is 0.95, then for each additional kilogram, the probability of the event decreases by about 5%.

## SE Coef

The standard error of the coefficient estimates the variability between coefficient estimates that you would obtain if you took samples from the same population again and again. The calculation assumes that the sample size and the coefficients to estimate would remain the same if you sampled again and again.

### Interpretation

Use the standard error of the coefficient to measure the precision of the estimate of the coefficient. The smaller the standard error, the more precise the estimate.

## Confidence interval for coefficient (95% CI)

These confidence intervals (CI) are ranges of values that are likely to contain the true value of the coefficient for each term in the model. The calculation of the confidence intervals uses the normal distribution. The confidence interval is accurate if the sample size is large enough that the distribution of the sample coefficient follows a normal distribution.

Because samples are random, two samples from a population are unlikely to yield identical confidence intervals. However, if you take many random samples, a certain percentage of the resulting confidence intervals contain the unknown population parameter. The percentage of these confidence intervals that contain the parameter is the confidence level of the interval.

The confidence interval is composed of the following two parts:
Point estimate
This single value estimates a population parameter by using your sample data. The confidence interval is centered around the point estimate.
Margin of error
The margin of error defines the width of the confidence interval and is determined by the observed variability in the sample, the sample size, and the confidence level. To calculate the upper limit of the confidence interval, the margin of error is added to the point estimate. To calculate the lower limit of the confidence interval, the margin of error is subtracted from the point estimate.

### Interpretation

Use the confidence interval to assess the estimate of the population coefficient for each term in the model.

For example, with a 95% confidence level, you can be 95% confident that the confidence interval contains the value of the coefficient for the population. The confidence interval helps you assess the practical significance of your results. Use your specialized knowledge to determine whether the confidence interval includes values that have practical significance for your situation. If the interval is too wide to be useful, consider increasing your sample size.

## Z-Value

The Z-value is a test statistic for Wald tests that measures the ratio between the coefficient and its standard error.

### Interpretation

Minitab uses the Z-value to calculate the p-value, which you use to make a decision about the statistical significance of the terms and the model. The Wald test is accurate when the sample size is large enough that the distribution of the sample coefficients follows a normal distribution.

A Z-value that is sufficiently far from 0 indicates that the coefficient estimate is both large and precise enough to be statistically different from 0. Conversely, a Z-value that is close to 0 indicates that the coefficient estimate is too small or too imprecise to be certain that the term has an effect on the response.

## P-Value – Term

The p-value is a probability that measures the evidence against the null hypothesis. Lower probabilities provide stronger evidence against the null hypothesis.

### Interpretation

To determine whether the association between the response variable and the predictor variable in the model is statistically significant, compare the p-value for the predictor to your significance level to assess the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is that the predictor's coefficient is equal to zero, which indicates that there is no association between the predictor and the response. Usually, a significance level (denoted as α or alpha) of 0.05 works well. A significance level of 0.05 indicates a 5% risk of concluding that an association exists when there is no actual association.
P-value ≤ α: The association is statistically significant
If the p-value is less than or equal to the significance level, you can conclude that there is a statistically significant association between the response variable and the predictor.
P-value > α: The association is not statistically significant

If the p-value is greater than the significance level, you cannot conclude that there is a statistically significant association between the response variable and the predictor.

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